shuf — generate random permutations


shuf [OPTION...] [FILE]

shuf −e [OPTION...] [ARG...]

shuf −i LO−HI [OPTION...]


Write a random permutation of the input lines to standard output.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

−e, −−echo

treat each ARG as an input line

−i, −−input−range=LO−HI

treat each number LO through HI as an input line

−n, −−head−count=COUNT

output at most COUNT lines

−o, −−output=FILE

write result to FILE instead of standard output


get random bytes from FILE

−z, −−zero−terminated

end lines with 0 byte, not newline


display this help and exit


output version information and exit

With no FILE, or when FILE is −, read standard input.


Written by Paul Eggert.


Report shuf bugs to bug−

GNU coreutils home page: <>

General help using GNU software: <>

Report shuf translation bugs to <>


The full documentation for shuf is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and shuf programs are properly installed at your site, the command

  • info coreutils 'shuf invocation'

should give you access to the complete manual.


Copyright © 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>.

This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.